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Kingdom of Anuradhapura

Kingdom of Anuradhapura


Anuradhapura is an ancient city, located at a distance of 206 km from Colombo. The city is in northern Sri Lanka and is the capital of North-Central province. Anuradhapura was established in 4th century BC. It was the first capital of Sri Lanka and remained so until 8th century AD. Anuradhapura is an archaeologist's delight and contains several monuments of historical importance. The city is considered very sacred by the Buddhists and is home to the largest dagobas in Sri Lanka. A dagoba is a dome enshrining sacred relics or the bodily remains of the Buddha, or articles used by Him like the alms bowl and other objects of veneration. It is built in different sizes on a pedestal with a spire on top crowned with a pinnacle. The earliest dagobas had a stone umbrella on top of the dome in place of the spire.
Places to See -
Sri Maha Bodhi Tree: The right branch of the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya in India under which the Buddha attained enlightenment was brought to Sri Lanka in the 3rd century BC by princess Sanghamitta, the daughter of Emperor Asoka. It was planted in Anuradhapura and is venerated to this day by the Buddhists from many countries of the world. This is the oldest recorded tree in the world whose exact age is known.
Thuparma Dagoba: Thuparama is the first dagoba to be built in Anuradhapura during the reign of King Devanmpiyatissa (3rd century BC) enshrining the right collarbone of the Buddha, His alms bowl and other relics.
Ruvanveli Dagoba: Ruvanveli Dagoba built by King Dutugemunu who ruled the country in the 2nd century BC is a huge dagoba measuring 103 metres in height with a circumference of 287 metres.
Jetavana Dagoba: Jetavana dagoba was built in the 3rd century AD by King Mahasena. It is an enormous brick structure standing in the centre of a large monastic complex measuring 3.2 hectares in extent and is rated as the largest and tallest brick built monument in the world. The structure has been declared a World Heritage Site.
Abhayagiri Dagoba: This Dagoba was built by King Valagam Bahu (1st century B.C.) and it is the Sri Lanka's second highest dagoba. It was at the Abhayagiri complex that the sacred Tooth Relic of the Buddha brought to Sri Lanka was first housed.
Samadhi Buddha: This 4th Century AD statue of the Buddha in meditative pose is a world famous Buddha statue and acknowledged as a masterpiece.
Isurumuniya: It is a picturesque rock temple built in the 3rd century BC. The beautiful stone sculptures seen at the temple are considered the most beautiful works of art in Anuradhapura.
Mihintale: Thirteen kilometers from Anuradhapura is the sacred mountain of Mihintale, the site of introduction of Buddhism to Sri Lanka in the year 247 BC. World's first fauna and flora sanctuary was established at Mihintale in the 3rd century BC. Today the peak of Mihintale, approached by a grand stairway of 1840 granite steps, has many temples, lodgings for monks and several splendid statues of the Buddha. Each June on the full moon there is a pilgrimage commemorating the date when Mahinda first preached the Buddhist doctrine in Sri Lanka and many thousands of pilgrims flock from all over Sri Lanka to meditate on the holy peak.
Awkana: Awkana-located 51 km southeast of Anuradhapura-is famous for 12 metres tall granite statue of Buddha, hewn out of solid rock in the standing posture on a lotus pedestal. The statue was built during the reign of King Dhatusena in the 5th century AD.
Kuttam Pokuna: Kuttam Pokuna or the Twin Ponds-the two breathtakingly beautiful bathing ponds aligned lengthwise-is a manifestation of the artistic achievements in the field of hydraulic engineering in ancient Sri Lanka. They date back to around 8-10th century AD.
Rulers Anuradhapura Kingdom

Pandukabhaya Abhaya's Sisters (Ummadacitta) son. Killed 8 uncles and became the king.
437-367 BC
Ganatissa Son of Pandukabhaya*
(40 years)*
Mutasiva Son of Ganatissa
367-307 BC
Devamnampiyatissa Son of mutasiva
250-210 BC

Arrival of the Great Mahinda Thero and introduction of Bhuddhism to Sri Lanka.    
250 BC
Arrival of Theri Sanghamitta with a branch of the original Sri Maha Bodhi in India

Uttiya Brother of Devamnampiyatissa
Mahasiva Brother of Devamnampiyatissa
Suratissa Brother of Devamnampiyatissa
Sena and Guttgaka Indian Invaders
Asela Youngest brother of Devamnampiyatissa
Elara Tamil invador form Chola country in India. Killed King Asela
205-161 BC
Dutugamunu Son of King Kavanthissa of Ruhuna and queen Vihara Maha Devi. Kavanthissa is a brother of Devamnampiyatissa
161-131 BC
Saddhatissa Brother of Dutugamunu
137-119 BC
Thulatthana Second son of Saddhatissa
119 BC
Lanjatissa Elder son of Saddhatissa who ousted  Thulatthana
119-109 BC
Khallata Naga  
109-104 BC
Vattagamini Abaya (Walagamba) Youngest son of Saddhatissa
104 BC
Pulahatta One of the seven South Indian Tamil Invaders who defeated Vattagamini Abaya. Two went back and other five stayed back and killed each other for the throne.
104-101 BC
Bahiya Bahiya was the commander of Pulahatta's troops. Slew Pulahatta and took the throne
101-99 BC
Panayamara Panayamara was the commander in chief of Bahiya's troops. Slew Bahiya and took the throne
99-92 BC
Pilayamara Pilayamara was the commander in chief of Panayamara's troops. Slew Panayamara and took the throne
92 BC
(7 months)
Dathika Dathika was the commander in chief of Pilayamara's troops. Slew Pilayamara and took the throne
91-89 BC
Vattagamini Abaya (restored) Defeated the South Indian Tamil Invaders (Dathika) and regained his sovereignty.
89-77 BC
Mahaculi Mahathissa  
76-62 BC
Coranaga Son of Vattagamini Abaya who was poisoned by his queen Anula
62-50 BC
Tissa Son of Mahaculi Mahathissa also poisoned by Anula.
50-47 BC
Siva Queen Anula's lover, a palace guard. Made Anula his queen and ruled for one year two months. Was poisoned by Anula for the love of Vatuka.
47 BC
Vatuka A Tamil which queen Anula fell in love with. Was a city carpenter. Made Anula his queen and ruled for one year two months. Was poisoned by Anula for the love of Darubhatika Tissa.
46 BC
Darubhatika Tissa A wood carrier which queen Anula fell in love with. Made Anula his queen and ruled for one year one month. Was poisoned by Anula for the love of Niliya.
45 BC
Niliya A brahman who was the palace-priest, which queen Anula fell in love with. Made Anula his queen and ruled for six months. Was poisoned by Anula.
44 BC
Anula (Queen) Took control of the crown after poisoning all previous six rulers
43 BC
Kutakanna Tissa Mahaculi Mahathissa's second son. Slayed Anula
42-20 BC
Bhatika Abhaya Son of Kutakanna Tissa
20 BC-9 AC
Mahadathika Mahanaga Younger brother of Bhatika Abhaya
9-21 AC
Amanda-Gamini Abhaya Son of Mahadathika Mahanaga
Kanirajanu Tissa Younger brother of Amanda-Gamini Abhaya. Killed his brother.
Gulabhaya Son of Amanda-Gamini Abhaya. Ruled for 1 year.
Seevali (Queen) Younger sister of Gulabhaya. Ruled ofr 4 months
Ilanaga A nephew of Amanda-Gamini Abhaya (sister's son) . Dethroned Queen Seevali
The Lambakanna Clan Who imprisoned the king in his first year and they administered the Government. But the king escaped to Malaya Rata (Hill Country) and came back after 3 years to battle the Lambakannas
Ilanaga (restored) Defeated the Lambakannas and took back the control
Candamukha Siva Son of Ilanaga
Yasalalaka Tissa Younger brother of Candamukha Siva. Slew his brother for the throne.
Subha The gate watchman of the Palace. The king used to swap places with him from time to time due to close resemblance of the two. At one instance the Guard dressed as the king, ordered to slay the king (dessed as the guard) thus becomming the king.
Vasabha From the The Lambakanna Clan. Defeated Subha
Vankanasika Tissa Son of Vasabha. Married the daughter of Suba
Gajabahu I Son of Vankanasika Tissa
Mahalla Naga Father in law of Gajabahu I
Bhathika Tissa Son of Mahalla Naga
Kavanthissa Younger brother of Bhathika Tissa
Kanittha Tissa Youngest brother of Bhathika Tissa
Khujja Naga Son of Kanittha Tissa
Kuncha Naga Brother of Khujja Naga. Killed Khujja Naga.
Siri Naga I brother of the Kuncha Naga's consort. Was the commander of troops. Defeated Kuncha Naga.
Voharika Tissa Son of Siri Naga
Abhaya Naga Younger brother of Voharika Tissa had a affair with the queen. Slew Voharika Tissa to take power
Sirinaga II Son of Voharika Tissa
Vijaya-Kumara Son of Sirinaga
Samghatissa I Of Lambakannas clan. Three friends (Samghatissa, Samghabodhi and Gothakabhaya) killed Vijaya and Samghatissa took over.
Sirisamghabodhi one of the three friends of Samghatissa. Took over after the the Samghatissa I.
Gothabhaya The third friend. Took control of the Kingdom after Sirisamghabodhi fled from th city
Jettatissa I Son of Gothabhaya
Mahasena Younger brother of Jettatissa I
Sirimeghavanna (Kithsiri Mevan) Son of Mahasena
Arrival of Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka during King Sirimeghavanna's rule

Jettasissa II Younger brother of Sirimeghavanna
Buddhadasa Son of Jettasissa
Upatissa I Son of Buddhadasa
Mahanama 2nd son of Buddhadasa
Sotthi Sona Illegitimate son of Mahanama who rules only for one day. He became the king in the forenoon and died in the afternoon from the poison given by his queen, princess Sanga
Chattagahaha Janthu  
Pandu Pandyan Invders who took control
Parinda Pandyan Invders who took control
Khudda Parinda Pandyan Invders who took control
Tiritara Pandyan Invders who took control
Dathiya Pandyan Invders who took control
Pithiya Pandyan Invders who took control
Dhathusena A monk who gave up the robe to fight the tamil invaders after king Mahanama
Kassapa I Son of Dhathusena. Killed his father for the throne and built the rock fortress at Sigiriya.
Moggallana Step brother and the rightful owner to the throne. Defeated Kassapa to gain the throne. Kassapa committed suicide. 
Kumara-Dhatusena Son of Moggallana. Died by juming in to the funeral pyre of his friend Kalidasa
Kittisena Son of Kumara-Dhatusena
Siva Uncle of Kittisena. Killed Kittisena
Upatissa II From Lamani clan. Killed Siva and ruled for 1 year ten months
Amba Samanera Silakala Killed Upatissa. From the same clan
Dathapabhuti Son of Amba Samanera Silakala. Ruled for six months
Moggallana II (Dalamugalan) nephew of Dathapabhuti
Kittisiri Meghavanna Son of Dalamugalan
Mahanaga From Okkaka clan. Killed Kittisiri Meghavanna
Aggabodhi I Nephew of Mahanaga
Aggabodhi II Nephew of Aggabodhi I
Sanghatissa II Younger brother of Aggabodhi II. Reigned for two months
Moggallana III Killed Sanghatissa II
Silameghavanna Killed Moggallana III
Aggaboghi III (Sirisangabodhi) Son of Silameghavanna
Jettatissa III Expelled king Aggabodhi
Aggabodhi III (restored) Aggabodhi defeats Jettatissa
Dathopatissa I younger brother of Aggabodhi
Kassapa II  
Dappua I  
Dathopatissa II  
Aggabodhi IV Nephew of Dathopatissa
Hetthadatha II  
Manavamma Son of Kassapa II
Aggabodhi V Son of Manavamma
Kassapa III Younger brother of Aggabodhi V
Mahinda I Younger brother of Aggabodhi V
Aggabodhi VI Son of Kassapa III?
Aggabodhi VII Son of Mahinda I
Mahinda II Son of Aggabodhi VII
Udaya I Son of Mahinda II. Also known as Dappula II
Mahinda III  
Aggabodhi VIII  
Dappula III Younger brother of Aggabodhi VIII
Aggabodhi IX  
Sena I Younger brother of Dappula III
Sena II Nephew of Sena I
Udaya II Brother of Sena II
Kassapa IV Son of Sena II
Kassapa V Son of Sena II
Dappula IV  
Dappula V Younger brother of Dappula IV
Udaya III  
Sena III Younger brother of Udaya III
Udaya IV  
Sena IV  
Mahinda IV Nephew of Udaya IV
Sena V Son of Mahinda IV. Became the king at age of 12
Mahinda V Brother of Sena V. Reigned from Urathota. Was captured by the cholas and deported to India